In order to assess the stage of development or poverty attained by any
country a new measure has been introduced by UNDP in 1997. This measure
is not satisfied with the dollar-a-day criteria of world bank, (poverty line). Therefore, UNDP substitutes a measure of human poverty for the Bank's
poverty. The measure is similar to
The human poverty index (HPI) believes that human poverty
should be measured in terms of three key deprivations of life (over 30% of people of LDCs are unlikely to
live beyond 40 years of age), of basic education (as measured by the percentage of adults
who are illiterate, with an emphasis on education deprivation for girls), and of
overall economic provisioning (measured by the percentage of people without
access to health services and safe water plus the percentage of children
under 5 who are under-weight).
Using a complex formula to calculate HPI
for 78 poor countries, the 1997 report ranked these countries from the lowest to
the highest HPI and found that these rankings could differ from W.B.
poverty rankings and UNDP's own HDI rankings. Since the PI value indicates the
proportion of population adversely affected by the three key deprivations (survival, knowledge and economic provisions), a low HPI is good (i.e., a
smaller percentage of population is deprived), while a higher HPI reflects a
greater deprivation. According to this report the HPI index value was 66% in case of Niger, the highest value, while it was
6.6% in case of Singapore.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and
Target: Halt and begin to reverse the spread of
Target: Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of
malaria and other major diseases.
Goal 7: Ensure Environmental
Target: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country
policies and programs; reverse loss of environmental resources.
Target: Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to
safe drinking water.
Target: Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100
million slum dwellers, by
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership
Target: Develop further an open trading and financial system that is
rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory, includes a commitment to good
governance, development and poverty reduction-nationally and internationally.
Target: Address the LDCs special needs. This includes tariff free and quota
free access for their exports; enhanced debt relief for heavily indebted poor
countries; cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous official
development assistance for countries committed to poverty reduction.
Target: Address the special needs of land locked and small island developing
Target: Deal comprehensively with developing countries debt problem through
national and international measures to make debt sustainable in long run.
Target: In cooperation with developing countries, develop decent and
productive work for youth.
Target: In connection with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to
affordable essential drugs in developing countries.
Target: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits
of new technologies, especially information and communication technologies.
Income Convergence and Income Divergence:
The situation where the gap between per capita incomes of the countries goes
on to widen is called Divergence in per capita real GDP. On the
other hand, where
the gap between per capita incomes of the countries goes on to shrink is called
convergence in per capita real GDP.
Prof. Angus Maddison in his book "Monitoring
the World Economy From 1820-1992" writes:
Gap between per capita GDP
between DCs and UDCs goes on to diverge, rather converge. As in 1820 the average
per capita GDP of Europe was $1292, while it was $550 in Asia. The statistics
for Europe and Asia were respectively $2110 and $580 in 1870. In 1929, they
were $4385 and $858 for Europe and Asia. In 1973, they were $12289 and $1801
both for Europe and Asia. While they were $17387 and $3252 for Europe and Asia
for the year 1992.
These statistics reveal that the difference between per capita real outputs
of rich and poor countries is becoming unequal. However, in case of China,
Korea, Chili, Singapore, Taiwan and Malaysia the Gap in respect of per capita
incomes is declining. It means that the per capita incomes of these countries
are increasing, and they are going close to the incomes of the rich.
It has also been found that the
countries which are converging their number is increasing relatively more as compared with those
which are diverging. Charles Jones writes further that from 1980 the average per
capita increase in incomes of the UDCs was 3.7% while it was just 2% in case of DCs, if we give weightage to growth rate on the ground of size of population.
This situation represents the situation of India and China where in the presence
of population of 1.2 bn and 1 bn the per capita real GDP increased. But Jones
also admits that from 1980 to 1993 the growth rate of at least half of UDCs
remained negative. In such state of affairs, the incomes of the world were
diverging, even at individual level their incomes increased.