Syria. The land so distributed amongst the poor growers cannot be resold or
redistributed. If the farmers fail to cultivate such tracts of land the govt.
may get such land back from the tenants.
In socialist countries when govts. get the extra lands they do not compensate
the landowners by giving any payment etc. But in Western and Mixed economies the
compensation is considered necessary from legal and ethical point of view.
However, the modes and techniques of compensation differ from country to
country. If the amount of compensation is higher it will not lead to reduce the
inequalities. Moreover, in connection with the determination of compensation the
issue of pricing of the land will rise. Some lands are more valuable than
others. In so many cases the amount of compensation is not given at
once - rather it is given in installments as it was done in case of Pakistan
The countries where the number of tenants are more the land reforms fail to
change the land owners. It means that before and after land reforms the
ownership of the land remains the same either he himself or his relative. In
such situation the need is to improve the lot of the tenants, a harmony be
brought about between the owner and the grower so that agri. production could
increase. Therefore, in so many countries the land reforms are aimed at
protecting the interests of the tenants, i.e. the owners will not eject the
tenants. The ejectment could be made if (a) the tenants fail to pay the
stipulated rent, (b) the tenants are improperly utilizing the land resources,
(c) the tenants do not cultivate the land, (d) the tenants have sublet the
land, and (e) the owner wishes to cultivate land.
Under land reforms it is also decided that how much rent will be paid by the
tenants to the owners, and how much investment will be made by the owners. The
amount of rent should not be so high that the tenants could not pay it.
Moreover, in case of crop failure there should be the exemption of the rent.
But practically one finds that measures suggested to improve the lot of
tenants are nothing more than paper work. To take-over the land is an
administrative step while the protection of rights of the tenants is a permanent
process which is impracticable. Moreover, it is not necessary that both the
owners and tenants will cooperate in this regard. In agrarian societies the
tenants are just tenants, they can not unite themselves in organizations or
associations and they are unable to negotiate with their owners. The tenants are
the borrowers of the owners, they have been the tenants since many a
generations. The tenants are nothing more than servants. How the owners will
treat them equally.
Because of these reasons the issue of improving the tenant-owner relationship
is hardly given any importance in land reforms. Such all is possible if the
system of tenancy is abolished.
(v) Proper Use of
The redistribution of land will be least beneficial if the lands are not
properly used and utilized, the
complementary inputs are not provided with;
the tenants are not acquainted with modern techniques of cultivation, they are
not told regarding marketing trends and they are not gotten rid of money lenders
and exploiters. Therefore, for the success of land reforms need is to provide
extension services to the fanners. They should be provided with credit. As far
as UDCs are concerned the commercial and cooperative banks are always