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Home Price and Output Determination Under Monopoly Long Run Equilibrium Under Monopoly


Long Run Equilibrium Under Monopoly:


The monopolist creates barriers of entry for the new firms into the industry. The entry into the industry is blocked by having control over the raw materials needed for the production of goods or he may hold full rights to the production of a certain good (patent) or the market of the good may be limited. If new firms try to enter in the field, it lowers the price of the good to such on extent that it becomes unprofitable for new firms to continue production etc.


When there is no threat of the entry of new firms into the industry, the monopoly firm makes long run adjustments in the scale of plant. In case, the demand for the product is limited, the monopolist can afford to produce output at sub optimum scale. If the market size is large and permits to expand output, then the monopolist would build an optimum scale of plant and would produce goods at the minimum cost per unit. However, the monopolist would not stay in the business, if he makes losses in the long period. The long run equilibrium of a monopoly firm is now explained with the help of the following diagram.






In the long run, all the factors of production including the size of the plant are variable. A monopoly firm will maximize profit at that level of output for which long run marginal cost (MC) is equal to marginal revenue (MR) and the LMC curve intersects the MR curve from below. In the figure (16.6), the monopoly firm is in equilibrium at point E where LMC = MR and LMC cuts MR curve from below. QP is the equilibrium price and OQ is the equilibrium output.


At OQ level of output, the cost per unit is QH (LAC), whereas the price per unit of the good is QP. HP represents the per unit super normal profit. The total super normal profit is equal to KPHN. It may here be noted that at the equilibrium output OQ, the plant is not being fully utilized. The long run average cost (LAC) is not minimum at this level of output OQ. The firm will build an optimum scale of plant only if the demand for the product increases.


Threat of Entry of New Firms:


If there is a threat of entry of new firms into the market, the monopolist adopts price reduction strategy. He instead of charging QP price per unit, lowers the price to BR. Since the per unit price BR is equal to the cost per unit at R, the monopoly firm is earning only normal profit in the long run. The reduction in price and so in profits is adopted to prevent the entry of new firms in the market.


Summing up, if a monopoly firm is in a position to maintain its monopoly status, it can earn super normal profit in the long period. However, if there is an effective threat of the entry of potential firms in, the industry, then the firm can earn just normal profit by reducing the price. The reduction in price depends on how strong is the threat of potential entry into the industry.


Relevant Articles:


What is Monopoly
Conditions/Base of Monopoly Power
Monopolist's Demand Curve
Short Run Equilibrium Price and Output Under Monopoly
Long Run Equilibrium Under Monopoly
Comparison Between Monopoly and Competitive Equilibrium or Perfect Competition
Misconceptions Concerning Monopoly Pricing
Monopoly Regulations
Monopoly Price Discrimination
Price and Output Determination Under Discrimination Monopoly
Assessment of Discriminating Monopoly or Price Discrimination

Principles and Theories of Micro Economics
Definition and Explanation of Economics
Theory of Consumer Behavior
Indifference Curve Analysis of Consumer's Equilibrium
Theory of Demand
Theory of Supply
Elasticity of Demand
Elasticity of Supply
Equilibrium of Demand and Supply
Economic Resources
Scale of Production
Laws of Returns
Production Function
Cost Analysis
Various Revenue Concepts
Price and output Determination Under Perfect Competition
Price and Output Determination Under Monopoly
Price and Output Determination Under Monopolistic/Imperfect Competition
Theory of Factor Pricing OR Theory of Distribution
Principles and Theories of Macro Economics
National Income and Its Measurement
Principles of Public Finance
Public Revenue and Taxation
National Debt and Income Determination
Fiscal Policy
Determinants of the Level of National Income and Employment
Determination of National Income
Theories of Employment
Theory of International Trade
Balance of Payments
Commercial Policy
Development and Planning Economics
Introduction to Development Economics
Features of Developing Countries
Economic Development and Economic Growth
Theories of Under Development
Theories of Economic Growth
Agriculture and Economic Development
Monetary Economics and Public Finance

History of Money

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