Apparently this scheme of
GR looks very attractive that it will lead to bring
a revolution in agri. But Prof. Hala Mynit has presented a lot of problems
regarding GR. They are as:
(1) Technical Problems:
(i) Due to GR where the need for better seeds, fertilizers and pesticides
rises, there also emerge the problems regarding demand and supply of water. As
in Thailand, Philippine and Malaysia the rice crop is sown in the rainy season.
Therefore, there exist the chances that the fertilizers will flow out because of
(ii) No doubt the HYV seeds will make it possible to get more crops in a year.
But this could be possible only if the cropping pattern is changed, and the
techniques of harvesting is also altered. As the dryers will have to be used to
dry the rices, as well as the stores will have to be set-up.
(iii) As the GR came into being due to 'Miracle Seeds'. But in order to improve
the level of seeds the govts. and researchers will have to remain intact with
the advance research in this field. Moreover, a compatibility will have to be
brought between international agri. technology and domestic conditions. The
changes will have to be brought in the systems of crops.
(2) Organizational Problems:
(i) The GR is also attached with organizational problems. It is also
necessary for GR that such an organization be setup where the following
functions could be settled efficiently, like (a) distribution of superior seeds
and fertilizers, and (b) to purchase the produced output and to store it. In
this respect, the countries like Pakistan have setup different departments and
corporations which sell seeds and fertilizers. Moreover, they also purchase
wheat and rice etc. But the performance of these organizations has been very
much poor because of official formalities, corruption and red-tapism.
(ii) Before GR the farmers used to
practice subsistence farming and people
used to produce equal to their needs. But after GR when output increases it will
have to be sold in the markets. For this purpose, the means of transportation
and the roads from villages to the markets will have to be constructed. If such
is not done there will be an abundance of grains etc. in villages leading to
fall in their prices.
(iii) Because of GR the self-sufficiency in villages will come to an end. The
agri. sector will be commercialized where the use of money will increase.
Consequently, the supply of money will have to be increased. The needs for loans
will rise. But in case of UDCs the commercial banks, cooperative banks and
specialized institutions advance loans to peasants in a smaller amount.
Therefore, the agri. sector will have to depend upon non-institutional sources
like money lenders and commission agents. In this way, the
financial dualism will get stronger. The lenders from non-organized money
markets will exploit the peasants. Therefore, the need is to open commercial and
cooperative banks in the villages. Such corporations be set-up in the villages
which could provide agri. inputs to the poor peasants at concessionary rates, at
installments and at subsidized rates etc.
(iv) The GR is also attached with better irrigational facilities. Therefore,
there is need to construct dams, control floods and undue rains and check water
logging and salinity etc. For such all, heavy funds are required. But as far as
UDCs are concerned they have the shortage of funds. To tax agri. sector in these
countries is like a forbidden fruit. Therefore, from where the funds will come
to Improve irrigational facilities.
(3) Central Economic Issues:
(i) The policy of support prices, restrictions on imports, and supply of agri.
inputs at reduced prices have benefited the poor farmers leading to increase the
agri. outputs. But there rises the question whether the incentives to the
farmers have led to optimal allocation of resources between agri. and non agri. sectors.
(ii) Because of GR govt. will have to make investment in sufficient amount,
particularly to increase the transport, storage and irrigational facilities.
Then there rises the issue that how public investment will be distributed
between agri. and non-agri. sectors.
(iii) When new technology is adopted because of GR there exit the chances of
unemployment of labor. Therefore, the need is to absorb such people in poultry
farming, forestry and fish farming. Therefore, if so happens the production of
livestock's, vegetables and forests will increase, in addition to agri.
(4) Side Effects of Green
(i) For the sake of Green Revolution the loans are provided at reduced rates,
the duty on imports of agri. machinery is abolished, the income tax exemption is
given on the poultry incomes and the subsidies are. given on the installation of
tube-wells etc. But the big land lords get the benefits of such all facilities.
In this way, they get more rich and powerful leading to create a class conflict
between land lords and poor farmers. This is the reason that it is said that GR
is not possible through small farmers. But the big farmers cannot be put under
constraints, as they take risk to adopt new technology and they contribute more
to national income: Moreover, it is obvious that the effects of GR will be
realized more in case of big farms than small farms. This is the reason
that GR does not support land reforms and sub-division of land holdings as small
farms of 2 to 4 acres will not allow the use of tractors and harvesters.
(ii) It is the GR which has led to promote economic dualism. Some parts of
agri. sector will develop while some other sectors will remain backward. Those
sectors which produce cash crops and exportable will get momentum and there will
be a rise in wages in such sectors. While in case of backward sectors the wages
will be depressed down, the unemployment and poverty will spread, and the number
of tenants will increase.
In addition to these above mentioned effects the poor, illiterate and
orthodox tillers of UDCs arc hardly persuaded to adopt new technology.
The mechanical changes of GR may often lead to reduce the demand for labor,
and increase the demand for capital (as we have discussed earlier). As a result,
the share of wages in national income will fall, while that of the rich landlord
will increase. Above all, this will result in unemployment - the unemployment
of the unskilled tillers particularly when industrial sector is sluggish and
fails to absorb them. Therefore, if GR benefits the feudals, landlords and
absentee landlords, then 'Public Policy' should aim at creating such
circumstances that the rich be taxed, they should not be provided the
complementary inputs at subsidized prices and the rate of interest for big agri.
credit be enhanced.