We know that higher the size of farms lower will be the productivity
of land while the reverse is true in the case of small farms. But in this analysis land was the variable factor.
It means that in case of production function, the production function depends upon the units of land only.
But practically it has been observed that Green Revolution consequent upon agri.
technology, high yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, tube-wells, tractors and
harvesters etc., has led to a remarkable increase in productivity of land and
production. Thus the production function here will be having agri. inputs, in
addition to land. Now it is to be seen whether green revolution has led to
increase the productivity of big farms or it has helped to increase the
productivity of small farms.
According to Prof. Nadeem Ul Haq and M. Mahmood there exists a U-type
relationship between size of farms and productivity of farms. Their statistics
are based upon the data collected from different districts of Pakistan. He is the opinion that the medium sized farm owners did not avail any benefit
from new technology.
After this discussion we come to the conclusion that it is doubtful that
there exists an inverse relationship between site of farms and productivity of
farms. This is because of the fact that the technology concerned with green
revolution is highly expensive. The big farmers were in a position to purchase
superior seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, threshers and harvesters etc. They
could easily borrow from lending institutions. They have good relations with the
workers and the staff of agri. departments. They get easy awareness regarding
new seeds and new technology. As a result, the element of uncertainty vanishes
as far as large farm-holders are concerned.
More appropriately, the modern
inputs offset the losses which could arise due to inferior qualities of land or
reduced supply of family labor. Consequently, the benefits which arise due to
large farms are more than those from small farms. But, according to Prof, Griffen, due to technology of green revolution the disparities in
distribution in rural areas will increase. This is to be analyzed whether
the small farmers lag behind the big farmer in adoption with new technologies.
The answer is positive, as, when new technology is introduced the big farmers
readily adopt it as their resources are ample and the level of knowledge is
higher as compared with that of the small farmers. But with the passage of time
when new technology spreads or rationing over it is put to an end the small
farmers also get it. But the small farmers have to face the hurdle of finance.
For this they send their family members to other areas and cities so that they
could earn and send moneys back to their elders.
Thus, according to British
Economist Lowdermilk, after a lag, the small farmers could be able to use the
new inputs with the same intensity as used by the big farmers. This means that
in long run the small farmers would avail the modern technology and the per acre
yield of small farmers could increase on the basis of superior quality of lands
and the family members. In this way, an inverse relationship would be
established between the size of the farm and the productivity of the land which
was temporarily suspended due to the technology of green revolution. It is
explained with the help of Fig. where the shift and movement on a production
function has been demonstrated.