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Concept and Definition of Green Revolution (GR):

When better and superior seeds are used; the fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and sprays are used; and the farm machinery like tractors, harvesters, tube wells and threshers etc., are used to enhance the agriculture output and agri. productivity – such all is given the name of Green Revolution (GR).

Thus because of GR, the high yielding seeds, fertilizers, agri. machinery water and better technology will become available. Consequently, the production function for any crop or crops will shift upward in agriculture sector leading to increase the agri. output. It is shown with the Fig.

Diagram:

If we represent the production function as Q = f (I) where I represents inputs like labor and water, seeds and fertilizers. We suppose that Q = f (I) is a traditional production function. If it shifts to Q = f (I/), it will represent the modern production function. If due to greater use of inputs the yield rises equivalent to the area ab or more than this, then we have green revolution.

The GR has been observed in India, Pakistan, Thailand and South American countries during the late 60s and 70s when there was rapid increase in per acre yield of the food grains. Such increase in agriculture production is due to GR.

Effects of Green Revolution (GR):

The GR will have the following effects.:

(i) It will contribute to overall economic growth of the country.

(ii) It will speed up the process of structural change in the society.

(iii) The nutritional standard will improve.

(iv) Efficiency and productivity of labor will increase.

(v) It will bring social changes in rural life by reducing death and birth rates.

The technical changes in agriculture sector can be classified into two broad categories.

(a) Biological Innovations are concerned with those factors that raise the land productivity e.g. the use of better seeds and the use of better fertilizers at the right time etc.

(b) Mechanical Innovations means the use of more machinery like tractors harvesters, bulldozers and tube wells etc. on lands.

If GR comprises of biological innovations, more jobs can be created. If GR implies tractorisation, then capital labor ratio rises and the employment falls.