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Home Production Function Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution (MRTS)


Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution (MRTS): 




Prof. R.G.D. Alien and J.R. Hicks introduced the concept of MRS (marginal rate of substitution) in the theory of demand. The similar concept is used in the explanation of producers equilibrium and is named as marginal rate of technical substitution (MRTS).


Marginal rate of technical substitution (MRTS) is:


"The rate at which one factor can be substituted for another while holding the level of output constant".


The slope of an isoquant shows the ability of a firm to replace one factor with another while holding the output constant. For example, if 2 units of factor capital (K) can be replaced by 1 unit of labor (L), marginal rate of technical substitution will be thus:


MRS = ΔK  = 2 = 2

                                                                                    ΔL     1    




The concept of MRTS can be explained easily with the help of the table and the graph, below:




Factor Combinations

Units of Labor

Units of Capital

Units of Output of Commodity X

MRTS of Labor for Capital
























It is clear from the above table that all the five different combinations of labor and capital that is A, B, C, D and E yield the same level of output of 150 units of commodity X, As we move down from factor A to factor B, then 4 units of capital are required for obtaining 1 unit of labor without affecting the total level of output (150 units of commodity X).


The MRTS is 4:1. As we step down from factor combination B to factor combination C, then 3 units of capital are needed to get 1 unit of labor. The MRTS of labor for capital 3:1. If we further switch down from factor combination C to D, the MRTS of labor for capital is 2:1. From factor D to E combination, the MRTS of labor for capital falls down to 1:1.







It means that the marginal rate of technical substitution of factor labor for factor capital (K) (MRTSLK) is the number of units of factor capital (K) which can be substituted by one unit of factor labor (L) keeping the same level of output. In the figure 12.8, all the five combinations of labor and capital which are A, B, C, D and E are plotted on a graph.





The points A, B, C, D and E are joined to form an isoquant. The iso-product curve shows the whole range of factor combinations producing 150 units of commodity X. It is important to point out that ail the five factor combination of labor and capital on an iso-product curve are technically efficient combinations. The producer is indifferent towards these, combinations as these produce the same level of output. 


Diminishing Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution:


The decline in MRTS along an isoquant for producing the same level of output is named as diminishing marginal rates of technical education. As we have seen in Fig. 12.8, that when a firm moves down from point (a) to point (b) and it hires one more labor, the firm gives up 4 units of capital (K) and yet remains on the same isoquant at point (b). So the MRTS is 4. If the firm hires another labor and moves from point (b) to (c), the firm can reduce its capital (K) to 3 units and yet remain on the same isoquant. So the MRTS is 3. If the firm moves from point (C) to (D), the MRTS is 2 and from point D to e, the MRTS is 1. The decline in MRTS along an isoquant as the firm increases labor for capital is called Diminishing Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution.

Relevant Articles:

What is Production Function
Short Period Analysis of Production

Long Run Production With Variable Inputs

Properties of Isoquants
Isocost Lines
Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution
Optimum Factor Combination

Principles and Theories of Micro Economics
Definition and Explanation of Economics
Theory of Consumer Behavior
Indifference Curve Analysis of Consumer's Equilibrium
Theory of Demand
Theory of Supply
Elasticity of Demand
Elasticity of Supply
Equilibrium of Demand and Supply
Economic Resources
Scale of Production
Laws of Returns
Production Function
Cost Analysis
Various Revenue Concepts
Price and output Determination Under Perfect Competition
Price and Output Determination Under Monopoly
Price and Output Determination Under Monopolistic/Imperfect Competition
Theory of Factor Pricing OR Theory of Distribution
Principles and Theories of Macro Economics
National Income and Its Measurement
Principles of Public Finance
Public Revenue and Taxation
National Debt and Income Determination
Fiscal Policy
Determinants of the Level of National Income and Employment
Determination of National Income
Theories of Employment
Theory of International Trade
Balance of Payments
Commercial Policy
Development and Planning Economics
Introduction to Development Economics
Features of Developing Countries
Economic Development and Economic Growth
Theories of Under Development
Theories of Economic Growth
Agriculture and Economic Development
Monetary Economics and Public Finance

History of Money

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