Home Page                      Contact Us                      About Us                      Privacy Policy                       Terms of Use                      Advertise 

Home Theory of International Trade Modern Theory of International Trade


Modern Theory of International Trade/General Equilibrium Theory By Hecksher and Ohlin:


Professor Bertil Ohlin and Hecksher have criticized the Ricardo's Comparative Costs Theory. They regard cost theory as unrealistic because it does not take into account complete cost differences. Moreover they say, it is based on the assumption of the comparative immobility of factors of production between the countries which. Is not correct. In addition to this, the cost theory is based on the assumption of static conditions. Since the present day world is highly dynamic, this cost theory is, therefore, useless and so is rejected.


Definition and Explanation:


The modern theory of international trade also named as the General Equilibrium Theory of International Trade was developed by two Sweedish economists, Hecksher and Ohlin.


According to these economists, the main cases and the regulator of international trade is the differences in the relative prices of the commodities between the countries. The differences in the prices of goods arise due to:


(i) Difference in climatic and technical know how.


(ii) Difference in the allocation of resources for the production of goods.


(iii) Variation in the demand for and supply of commodity as well as the demand for and the supply of the required factors.


According to Ohlin:


If a country has an abundant supply of a factor or factors relative to another, they will be available to the firms at cheaper prices. The costs of production of the goods which require these abundant factors will be comparatively low. A region, therefore, allocates its resources in accordance with the comparative advantage and specializes in the production of the commodities which require cheap factors. It exports these commodities and imports those goods which are cheaper in other countries due to the availability of abundant factors required for the production of those goods.


The trade between the regions continues till the differences in factor supplies is offset by a difference in their demand conditions. Trade of goods between the countries, is, thus, determined inter alia by the equilibrium of the demand and supply of respective commodities in a country. This principle also applies to inter-regional trade. Thus according to them:


"International trade is but a special case of inter-local or inter-regional trade".




Ohlin theorem is now explained by taking two trading countries Pakistan and Japan. In Pakistan, as we know, land is relatively abundant and capital is relatively scarce. Conversely, in Japan capital is relatively abundant and land relatively scarce.


Pakistan due to relatively abundant supply of land and farmers is able to produce agricultural goods, cotton and wheat at lower prices than Japan. Japan, on the other hand, having relatively an abundant supply of capital and know-how, produces machinery at cheaper cost. If Pakistan specializes in the production of wheat and cotton and Japan in machinery, both the countries will gain from increased output and lower prices of the products of each country.


The specialization and trade between Pakistan and Japan will continue so long as the differences in the relative prices of the factors exist. When due to increased demand for each other goods, the resource prices are equalized, trade is then not gainful to both the countries.


Criticism on Ohlin's Theory:


The factors proportion theory of trade put forward by Ohlin has been criticized on the following grounds:


(i) Based on over simplified assumptions: The theory is based on oversimplified assumptions which are unrealistic.


(ii) Partial equilibrium analysis: According to Heberler, the General Equilibrium theory gives a partial equilibrium analysis of international trade. In the real world selling costs, international organization of industries, etc., have a direct bearing on trading countries. Trade does not originate in response to differences in the relative prices of the commodities alone.


(iii) Ignores transport cost: Ohlin s theory ignores the transport costs winch have an important bearing on international trade.


(iv) A complement theory: Heberler is of the view that Ohlin's theory can be regarded a complement and not a substitute of the classical theory of comparative cost.


Summing up: We can say that the Ohlin's Theorem provides a deep insight into the nature of international trade. It takes the aspects which so far have not been touched by the old theories. It is, so far the best of all possible explanation.

Relevant Articles:

Home Trade and International Trade
Foreign Trade and National Income
Origin and Purpose of International Trade
Theory of Comparative Cost
Gains From International Trade
Modern Theory of International Trade
Terms of Trade
Advantages and Disadvantages of International Trade

Principles and Theories of Micro Economics
Definition and Explanation of Economics
Theory of Consumer Behavior
Indifference Curve Analysis of Consumer's Equilibrium
Theory of Demand
Theory of Supply
Elasticity of Demand
Elasticity of Supply
Equilibrium of Demand and Supply
Economic Resources
Scale of Production
Laws of Returns
Production Function
Cost Analysis
Various Revenue Concepts
Price and output Determination Under Perfect Competition
Price and Output Determination Under Monopoly
Price and Output Determination Under Monopolistic/Imperfect Competition
Theory of Factor Pricing OR Theory of Distribution
Principles and Theories of Macro Economics
National Income and Its Measurement
Principles of Public Finance
Public Revenue and Taxation
National Debt and Income Determination
Fiscal Policy
Determinants of the Level of National Income and Employment
Determination of National Income
Theories of Employment
Theory of International Trade
Balance of Payments
Commercial Policy
Development and Planning Economics
Introduction to Development Economics
Features of Developing Countries
Economic Development and Economic Growth
Theories of Under Development
Theories of Economic Growth
Agriculture and Economic Development
Monetary Economics and Public Finance

History of Money

                   Home Page                Contact Us                About Us                Privacy Policy                Terms of Use                Advertise               

All the material on this site is the property of economicsconcepts.com. No part of this website may be reproduced without permission of economics concepts.
All rights reserved Copyright
2010 - 2015