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Commercial Policy:


What is Commercial Policy?


"By commercial policy or trade policy is meant all measures regulating the external economic relations of a country, that is measures taken by a territorial government which has the power of assisting or hindering the exports or imports of goods and services". Continue reading.


Objectives of Modern Commercial Policy:


The main objectives of the modern commercial policy are: Continue reading.


Instruments of Commercial Policy:


The main instruments or toots which are now a days used for achieving the objectives of commercial policy are as follows: Continue reading.


Theory of Free Trade:


Adam Smith like the Physocratics of France, was a staunch advocate of free trade. He was of the view that state should not interfere in the internal economic life of the citizens of a country as it hampers economic progress. He was against putting any kind of restrictions on the imports and exports of commodities. In the words of Adam Smith: Continue reading.




"A policy of encouraging domestic industries by the imposition of tariffs on foreign products and payment of bounties to home industries is known as protectionism". Continue reading.


Barriers to Foreign/International Trade:


In order to shelter home industries, foreign/international trade has following barriers: Continue reading.



Principles and Theories of Micro Economics
Definition and Explanation of Economics
Theory of Consumer Behavior
Indifference Curve Analysis of Consumer's Equilibrium
Theory of Demand
Theory of Supply
Elasticity of Demand
Elasticity of Supply
Equilibrium of Demand and Supply
Economic Resources
Scale of Production
Laws of Returns
Production Function
Cost Analysis
Various Revenue Concepts
Price and output Determination Under Perfect Competition
Price and Output Determination Under Monopoly
Price and Output Determination Under Monopolistic/Imperfect Competition
Theory of Factor Pricing OR Theory of Distribution
Principles and Theories of Macro Economics
National Income and Its Measurement
Principles of Public Finance
Public Revenue and Taxation
National Debt and Income Determination
Fiscal Policy
Determinants of the Level of National Income and Employment
Determination of National Income
Theories of Employment
Theory of International Trade
Balance of Payments
Commercial Policy
Development and Planning Economics
Introduction to Development Economics
Features of Developing Countries
Economic Development and Economic Growth
Theories of Under Development
Theories of Economic Growth
Agriculture and Economic Development
Monetary Economics and Public Finance

History of Money

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